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the wireless messaging news

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Wireless News Aggregation

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Friday — April 25, 2014 — Issue No. 603

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Paging and Wireless Messaging Home Page image Newsletter Archive image Carrier Directory image Recommended Products and Services
Reference Papers Consulting Glossary of Terms Send an e-mail to Brad Dye

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Dear Friends of Wireless Messaging,

It's a beautiful day here today. Please accept my best wishes for a happy and safe weekend.

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Update on repairing a wet cell phone or pager:

Evidentially there are some issues when repairing a wet device in a vacuum chamber. Different substances are used to bond the LCD to the glass (front plate). Some of the tape-type may retain water that cannot be removed in a vacuum.

  • LOCA – Liquid Optically Clear Adhesive (UV Glue)
  • LOCA2 – Liquid Optically Clear Adhesive - New Formula (UV Glue)
  • OCA – (OCA tape) Optically Clear Adhesive (Sticker but needs autoclave to remove bubbles)?

I am still researching this, and will report to you when I find more definitive information.

Another issue that I found: “When a vacuum level below 5 mm Hg (5,000 microns) is established quickly, any liquid water within the phone might freeze, which could damage the phone by expansion. Also, ice takes a lot longer to remove under a vacuum via sublimation* than liquid water boiling off at micron levels higher than 5,000. Use your micron gauge if you do this, and throttle the rate of vacuum with your manifold or blank-off valve on the vacuum pump.” [source]

* Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through an intermediate liquid phase. Sublimation is an endothermic phase transition that occurs at temperatures and pressures below a substance's triple point in its phase diagram. The reverse process of sublimation is desublimation, or deposition.

At normal pressures, most chemical compounds and elements possess three different states at different temperatures. In these cases, the transition from the solid to the gaseous state requires an intermediate liquid state. Note, however, that the pressure referred to here is the partial pressure of the substance, not the total (e.g., atmospheric) pressure of the entire system. So, all solids that possess an appreciable vapor pressure at a certain temperature usually can sublime in air (e.g., water ice just below 0 °C). For some substances, such as carbon and arsenic, sublimation is much easier than evaporation from the melt, because the pressure of their triple point is very high, and it is difficult to obtain them as liquids.

Sublimation requires additional energy and is an endothermic change. The enthalpy of sublimation (also called heat of sublimation) can be calculated as the enthalpy of fusion plus the enthalpy of vaporization.


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P.S. This newsletter is made possible by contributions from readers like you.

Now on to more news and views.

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Wireless Messaging News
  • Emergency Radio Communications
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  • Critical Messaging
  • Telemetry
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About Us

A new issue of the Wireless Messaging Newsletter is posted on the web each week. A notification goes out by e-mail to subscribers on most Fridays around noon central US time. The notification message has a link to the actual newsletter on the web. That way it doesn't fill up your incoming e-mail account.

There is no charge for subscription and there are no membership restrictions. Readers are a very select group of wireless industry professionals, and include the senior managers of many of the world's major Paging and Wireless Messaging companies. There is an even mix of operations managers, marketing people, and engineers — so I try to include items of interest to all three groups. It's all about staying up-to-date with business trends and technology.

I regularly get readers' comments, so this newsletter has become a community forum for the Paging, and Wireless Messaging communities. You are welcome to contribute your ideas and opinions. Unless otherwise requested, all correspondence addressed to me is subject to publication in the newsletter and on my web site. I am very careful to protect the anonymity of those who request it.

I spend the whole week searching the Internet for news that I think may be of interest to you — so you won't have to. This newsletter is an aggregator — a service that aggregates news from other news sources. You can help our community by sharing any interesting news that you find.

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Editorial Policy

Editorial Opinion pieces present only the opinions of the author. They do not necessarily reflect the views of any of advertisers or supporters. This newsletter is independent of any trade association.

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Back To Paging


Still The Most Reliable Protocol For Wireless Messaging!

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If you would like to subscribe to the newsletter just fill in the blanks in the form above, and then click on the “Subscribe” bar.

free There is no charge for subscription and there are no membership restrictions. It's all about staying up-to-date with business trends and technology.


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If you are reading this, your potential customers are probably reading it as well. Please click here to find out how.

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Can You Help The Newsletter?

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You can help support the Wireless Messaging News by clicking on the PayPal Donate button above. It is not necessary to be a member of PayPal to use this service.

Reader Support

Newspapers generally cost 75¢ $1.50 a copy and they hardly ever mention paging or wireless messaging. If you receive some benefit from this publication maybe you would like to help support it financially? A donation of $50.00 would certainly help cover a one-year paid subscription. If you are wiling and able, please click on the PayPal Donate button above.

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Advertiser Index

American Messaging
Critical Alert Systems
Critical Response Systems
Eagle Telecom
Easy Solutions
Hahntech USA
Hark Technologies
Ira Wiesenfeld & Associates
Leavitt Communications
Preferred Wireless
Prism Paging
Product Support Services — (PSSI)
Paging & Wireless Network Planners LLC — (Ron Mercer)
WiPath Communications

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State-of-the-art paging network infrastructure, fully supported at an affordable price – and it integrates with your other gear, include most makes of transmitters

Whether you are replacing or upgrading your existing network or building out new infrastructure, Infostream has the new equipment and systems that you need.

  • Optimised for mission critical and public safety networks
  • Highly integrated base station controller
    • GPS
    • 3G modem
    • HTML User Interface
    • Ethernet switch, IP and router
    • Optional integrated radio modems
    • Dual channel capable
    • Integrated off-air (self monitoring) receiver
  • Ultra high reliability configuration (99.999%)
  • Message encryption plug-in
  • Fully featured central site VOIP, CAD, HTML, TAP, TNPP, SMPP access
  • NMS integration including Nagios, SNMP and syslog
  • Comprehensive diagnostics including adjacent site monitoring
  • Deployed internationally in mission critical applications
  • 21 years of industry experience in design, build and integration

Infostream is a world leading supplier of paging and messaging infrastructure, specialized paging receivers and consultancy services. The company was founded in 1993 and has engineered and supplied equipment for some of the largest public safety networks and private paging customers around the world.

Medical • Fire • Police • Security • Mining • Petrochemicals • Financial Markets • Telemetry • Custom Applications

infostreamInfostream Pty Limited
Suite 10, 7 Narabang Way, Belrose, NSW 2085, AUSTRALIA
Sales Email: | Phone: +61 2 9986 3588 | Afterhours: +61 417 555 525

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Ivy Corp Eagle Telecom

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Critical Response Systems

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More than Paging.
First Responder Solutions.

Our patented technology notifies clinical personnel immediately, while tracking who receives and responds to each alarm. Users confirm or defer each event with a single button press, and analytic dashboards display response statistics in real time, as well as historically broken down by time, unit, room, and individual.

Our systems not only notify your personnel quickly and reliably, but also provide actionable feedback to fine-tune your procedures, reduce unnecessary alarms, and improve patient outcomes.

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High-tech Location Tracking Beeper Introduced to Prevent Children Missing

Posted on April 24, 2014 by Korea Bizwire in Business Trend, Communication & Tech, Editor's Choice, Gadgets & Gizmos, New Launch, Tech Trend, Technology

With the money on hand, the company has recently launched a smart beeper "Mamieye" that provides precise locational information based on Wi-Fi technology.(image:Korea Finance Platform company)

SEOUL, Korea, April 24, 2014 (Korea Bizwire) — May is the month of families and this year will be no different in that so many families would take trips to the outdoors. But so many children go missing every year.

According to the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the number of the missing including the mentally challenged and the elderly as well as children is 95,832 as of 2012.

Yegong Inc., the company specializing in the manufacture of Wi-Fi location tracking devices, has raised a fund for 25 days between March 13 and April 7 jointly with crowd funding firm Opportune. The company successfully reached the target funding volume of 300 million won and raised a total of 324 million won.

With the money on hand, the company has recently launched a smart beeper "Mamieye" that provides precise locational information based on Wi-Fi technology.

With the weight of only 25 grams, the Mamieye sends out signals that can be checked through the web or mobile. It is easy for the wearer to operate with the simple press of an emergency button. Not only suitable for children and senior citizens with Alzheimer's, it is also ideal for pets.

As the device can be exported overseas, Yegong believes it can expand the market and in the future aspires to list its shares on the NASDAQ market in the United States.

Kim Dong-yeon, president of Yegong, said, "The Mamieye is designed to keep children and old people from being lost. In terms of technical simplicity and price, the Mamieye is quite different from other similar products in the past. I'd like to say thank you to everyone who invested with us and I assure you the fund will be spent usefully for marketing purposes."

Written by Sean Chung (


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Specialists in sales and service of equipment from these leading manufacturers, as well as other two-way radio and paging products:

UNICATIONbendix king

motorola blue Motorola SOLUTIONS

COMmotorola red Motorola MOBILITY spacer
Philip C. Leavitt
Leavitt Communications
7508 N. Red Ledge Drive
Paradise Valley, AZ 85253
Web Site:
Mobile phone:847-494-0000
Skype ID:pcleavitt

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One System, Two Uses: Intrado Cell Broadcast Service

Mon, 04/21/2014 - 10:45am
Tim Auen Director, Product Management, Intrado

The following is contributed blog by Tim Auen, director of product management for Intrado.

It is difficult to pinpoint exactly when it happened, but at some point in 2013, cell phones began to outnumber people in the United States. Sometime late this year, the number of mobile devices around the world is projected to surpass global population. Given this trend, the CTIA, FCC and FEMA initiated a joint effort to develop Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA), a wireless version of emergency notification services. The valuable service was developed to increase public safety by capitalizing on this ubiquitous mode of modern communication. While wireless service providers carry no legal responsibility for participating in the program, they may face significant business implications for opting out. As more and more WEA messages are broadcasted around the country, customer retention could become a challenge for carriers that choose not to offer the service. For tier 1 carriers, WEA participation is an easy decision. Smaller carriers, however, may be challenged by the cost of required technology upgrades. Intrado Cell Broadcast Service (ICBS) allows tier 2 and tier 3 carriers to deliver lifesaving WEA messaging without expensive technology upgrades and provides a way to monetize their existing networks through the use of commercial cell broadcast messages.

Wireless Emergency Alerts

As with any new technology service, WEA comes with significant technology requirements. The service is dependent upon specific gateways that allow the emergency alerts to be disseminated by authorities to the wireless service providers and, ultimately, end-users. Within the WEA architecture, carriers are responsible for developing, testing and deploying the Commercial Mobile Service Provider (CMSP) Alert Gateway and Cell Broadcast Center (CBC) based upon standards adopted and provided by the WEA commission. As soon as a carrier communicates to the FCC their intent to participate in WEA, they must also attest to supporting and performing various functions at their gateway relative to connectivity, authentication and validation, security, geographic targeting and message management. For most tier 2 and 3 carriers, these requirements make participation in this service technologically and economically challenging. This is unfortunate because WEA messages have played a significant role in many recent emergency events, including the Colorado floods, a Connecticut tornado and a child abduction in Minneapolis. In each of these instances, cell phone users received specific unsolicited emergency information that provided warnings, instructions and descriptions that directly saved the lives of countless people. Clearly, this is an important service that every wireless carrier should consider offering to their customers.

Intrado Cell Broadcast Service (ICBS) was developed to make it easy and affordable for carriers of any size to broadcast important WEA messages. ICBS is a fully managed and hosted solution that enables wireless carriers to receive WEA emergency alerts aggregated and distributed by the Federal Alert Gateways while meeting all of the requirements of the FCC Warning, Alert and Response Network (WARN) Act. Emergency alerts are delivered over the Intrado network to a carrier's cell sites located within a targeted geographic alert area. The carrier's towers then broadcast the alerts to all WEA-enabled mobile handset that are being served by that tower at the time of the alert. With ICBS, carriers do not have to make significant network investments and are not responsible for any architecture testing or security. In this way, small regional carriers can provide their customers with the same emergency services offered by tier 1 carriers across the country.

Commercial Cell Broadcast Messages

In addition to the ability to deliver lifesaving WEA messages, ICBS allows carriers to monetize their network and drive revenue through the delivery of commercial cell broadcast messages. Using the same system designated for WEA messages, ICBS applies precision location technology to deliver a wide range of non-emergency messages to a geo-targeted audience. This is an exciting opportunity because it has broad applications that will allow carriers to recoup some of the cost of the WEA service.

ICBS for commercial purposes is an easy-to-use, fully hosted solution. The carrier simply provides Intrado with the content details and the geographic dimension—which cell towers to utilize. Intrado then audits the content for accuracy and sends out the messages over the carrier's network based on the specifications governing the distribution of the content—when, where and who receives it.

The most obvious application for commercial ICBS is location-based mobile marketing—one of the hottest new trends in retail sales. In this scenario, wireless subscribers opt into the service as a way of receiving coupons, product information, sale notifications, etc. Carriers then charge content providers (such as a retailer or a restaurant) a set fee per message sent out to customers based on their geo-targeted location.

Beyond retail applications, this can be a valuable asset to small communities that want an easy way to disseminate local notifications or news items. School districts can use the service to announce school closings. The carrier itself can even utilize the solution to announce product updates or other information directed to its customers.

Connecting with Customers

As the world becomes more and more wirelessly connected, the role of mobile devices is expanding rapidly. We no longer think of a cell phone as a simple way to make a call. Today, it is a dynamic tool to send, receive and interact with relevant information. The Intrado Cell Broadcast Service allows wireless carriers of all sizes to take advantage of this shift in the marketplace. This important service provides carriers with an easy and affordable way to deliver both emergency and commercial messages to their customers without the need for costly network investments.

Source: WirelessWEEK

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American Messaging

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American Messaging

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Easy Solutions

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easy solutions

Easy Solutions provides cost effective computer and wireless solutions at affordable prices. We can help in most any situation with your communications systems. We have many years of experience and a vast network of resources to support the industry, your system and an ever changing completive landscape.

  • We treat our customers like family. We don't just fix problems . . . We recommend and implement better cost effective solutions.
  • We are not just another vendor . . . We are a part of your team. All the advantages of high priced full time employment without the cost.
  • We are not in the Technical Services business . . . We are in the Customer Satisfaction business.

Experts in Paging Infrastructure

  • Glenayre, Motorola, Unipage, etc.
  • Excellent Service Contracts
  • Full Service—Beyond Factory Support
  • Contracts for Glenayre and other Systems starting at $100
  • Making systems More Reliable and MORE PROFITABLE for over 30 years.

Please see our web site for exciting solutions designed specifically for the Wireless Industry. We also maintain a diagnostic lab and provide important repair and replacement parts services for Motorola and Glenayre equipment. Call or e-mail us for more information.

Easy Solutions
3220 San Simeon Way
Plano, Texas 75023

Vaughan Bowden
Telephone: 972-898-1119

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Easy Solutions

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Product Support Services, Inc.

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Repair and Refurbishment Services

pssi logo


Product Support Services, Inc.

511 South Royal Lane
Coppell, Texas 75019
(972) 462-3970 Ext. 261 left arrow left arrow

PSSI is the industry leader in reverse logistics, our services include depot repair, product returns management, RMA and RTV management, product audit, test, refurbishment, re-kitting and value recovery.

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Classified Advertising

Want to Buy

For Sale

Vocom 350 Watt UHF amplifiers
Giles Smith
GCS Electronics & Communications


QT-250 B high-band transmitter with an analogue exciter and instruction book. Don't really need the rack. Looking for something to run a couple hundred watts on the 2 meter ham band.
John Parmalee


Hark Verifier or a Hark Verifier II and Icom IC PCR 100 receiver.
Steve Suker
CVC Paging


I am looking for a midband (72-76mHz) link repeater.  The only manufacturer I can find who is currently producing and supporting a midband repeater is RF Technology in Australia  (Eclipse T70/R70).
Your thoughts/suggestions on this would be greatly appreciated.
Peter Johnson
Engineering Consultant
978-496-4427 cel

If you have any equipment that you would like to buy or sell, please send me an e-mail and I will include it in the classified section above. If a sale is made I ask the seller to send me a 10% commission, much the same as the voluntary payments that are requested on the Internet for shareware. There is no cost to the buyer. This is on the honor system — no contracts — just the Internet equivalent of a hand shake.

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Leavitt Communications

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its stil here

It's still here — the tried and true Motorola Alphamate 250. Now owned, supported, and available from Leavitt Communications. Call us for new or reconditioned units, parts, manuals, and repairs.

We also offer refurbished Alphamate 250's, Alphamate IIs, the original Alphamate and new and refurbished pagers, pager repairs, pager parts and accessories. We are FULL SERVICE in Paging!

E-mail Phil Leavitt ( ) for pricing and delivery information or for a list of other available paging and two-way related equipment.

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Phil Leavitt

leavitt logo

7508 N. Red Ledge Drive
Paradise Valley, AZ 85253

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It's official: Nokia's phone business will become Microsoft's on April 25

Brad Chacos
Apr 21, 2014 8:22 AM

The end is nigh. Or is that a new beginning? Either way you look at it, Microsoft on Monday announced that its $7 billion acquisition of Nokia's phone business will finally close this Friday, April 25, after regulatory delays slowed the deal .

Microsoft general counsel Brad Smith also revealed some additional agreements hammered out in the months since the acquisition's announcement. Most revolve around behind-the-scenes personnel and manufacturing details, but of particular note is that Microsoft will handle the website and Nokia's social media presence for up to a year, despite the fact that the rest of Nokia is carrying on as a separate company.

Stephen Elop, the Nokia CEO who arrived at the company by way of Microsoft, will return to the Redmond company as part of the deal, where he will assume control of Microsoft's hardware division. He's just one of approximately 32,000 Nokia employees making the jump to Microsoft.


Microsoft's Nokia buyout comes in the middle of a gargantuan shift for Microsoft, which—in addition to recently replacing its CEO —is transitioning from a traditional software company to something more device- and services-oriented .

While both Nokia's Lumia line and Windows Phone as a platform have struggled to compete with the dual Android/Apple mobile juggernaut, Microsoft has said that phones are the key to everything in today's tightly controlled ecosystems. While we're skeptical that buying Nokia will pay off for Windows Phone's prospects, the hard-won lessons that the intensely consumer-focused Nokia can teach Microsoft could help transform the business that Bill Gates built into something great again, one Nokia phone at a time .

elop build 2014
Nokia's Stephen Elop at Microsoft's Build 2014 keynote.       Image: Jon Phillips

Windows Phone itself is on the upswing right now, at least in the hearts and minds of developers, if not everyday users. At its recent Build conference, Microsoft announced a trio of announcements designed to drive a jolt of energy into its mobile ecosystem, starting with the vastly improved Windows 8.1 update , which adds a much-needed notification center and Cortana, the surprisingly useful digital assistant . Between those and the numerous other features baked into the update, Windows Phone is finally a full-fledged OS capable of taking on Android and iPhone—at least as far as the core experience is concerned. In other words, Windows Phone 8.1 finally provides a level of software polished enough to match well with Nokia's impeccable hardware designs.

Microsoft also announced universal Windows apps , which allow developers to create a single app, then easily push it out across Windows Phones, PCs, and tablets, complete with the option for users to buy the app once and have it run on any platform. The first of those have already begun appearing in Microsoft's app stores . Microsoft also now provides the Windows Phone operating system for free to phone manufacturers, as well—a move that can both push WP8 adoption and quell any discontent about Microsoft snapping up Nokia.

With all the focus on Windows Phone, though, one big question remains: What will Microsoft do with Nokia's recently announced Nokia X phones , which run on a heavily modified version of Android chock full of Microsoft services? Given Microsoft's newfound services focus—as exemplified by Office for iPad Microsoft may just let the experiment play out , at least for a while.

Source: PCWorld

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Consulting Alliance

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Brad Dye, Ron Mercer, Allan Angus, Vic Jackson, and Ira Wiesenfeld are friends and colleagues who work both together and independently, on wireline and wireless communications projects. Click here left arrow for a summary of their qualifications and experience. Each one has unique abilities. We would be happy to help you with a project, and maybe save you some time and money.

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Consulting Alliance

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Telemetry solution

Easy Application & Better Performance


NPCS Telemetry Modem


(ReFLEX 2.7.5)






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Preferred Wireless

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preferred logo

Terminals & Controllers:
5ASC1500 Parts: ATC, Memory Cards & Power Supplies    
3CNET Platinum Controllers 
2GL3100 RF Director 
1GL3000 ES — 2 Chassis
40SkyData 8466 B Receivers
1GL3000L Complete w/Spares
3Zetron 2200 Terminals
1Unipage—Many Unipage Cards & Chassis
9Zetron M66 Transmitter Controllers  
4Glenayre Universal Exciters, 1 UHF, 3 VHF
5Hot Standby Panel—2 Old Style, 3 New Style
25New and Used Cabinets & Open Racks 
38Andrews PG1N0F-0093-810 Antennas 928-944 MHz, Omni, 10dBi, 8 Degree Down-Tilt
4Andrews PG1D0F-0093-610 Antennas 928-944 MHz, Omni, 10dBi, 6 Degree Down Tilt
Link Transmitters:
1QT-5701, 35W, UHF, Link Transmitter
4Glenayre QT4201 & 6201, 25 & 100W Midband Link TX
1Glenayre QT6994, 150W, 900 MHz Link TX
3Motorola 10W, 900 MHz Link TX (C35JZB6106)
2Eagle 900 MHz Link Transmitters, 60 & 80W
8Glenayre GL C2100 Link Repeaters
2Motorola Q2630A, 30W, UHF Link TX
VHF Paging Transmitters
1Glenayre QT7505
1Glenayre QT8505
UHF Paging Transmitters:
20Glenayre UHF GLT5340, 125W, DSP Exciter
900 MHz Paging Transmitters:
2Glenayre GLT8200, 25W
15Glenayre GLT-8500 250W
3Glenayre GLT 8600, 500W
40Motorola Nucleus 900 MHz 300W CNET Transmitters


Too Much To List • Call or E-Mail

Rick McMichael
Preferred Wireless, Inc.
10658 St. Charles Rock Rd.
St. Louis, MO 63074
888-429-4171 or 314-429-3000 left arrow

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Preferred Wireless

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State of the Internet report is out: Web is faster but attacks also on the rise

By Vamien McKalin, Tech Times | April 25, 6:59

With Internet speeds on the rise year-over-year, it's the perfect setting for Chinese hackers to use DDoS attacks on various websites on the Internet. The global average Internet connection speed is 3.8 Mbps. (Photo : Brian Klug)

It is not difficult to realize that the Internet is getting faster every year, and to many, that's a good thing. Consumers will be able to download files faster and stream content more smoothly in full 1080p HD. However, this speed boost also benefits hackers, as attacks on websites have risen sharply.

In the United States, the average Internet connection speed reached 10 Mbps, which is a gain of 2 percent since the previous quarter. Canada, on the other hand, reached 9 Mbps, a gain of 1.5 percent over the previous quarter. When it comes to Mexico, the average Internet connection in that country has grown to 4 Mbps, which is a growth of 2.9 percent, to become the highest-growth country in the Americas for the past quarter.

When it comes down to which state in the U.S. has the highest average Internet connection speed, Virginia takes the cake with 14.4 Mbps. In addition, the state has the largest quarter-over-quarter Internet speed growth of 11 percent. This means that if you want the fastest Internet speed in the United States, you might want to move yourself to Virginia.

According to Akamai, a leading content delivery network, connection speeds globally have grown by 38 percent when compared to the fourth quarter of 2012. The global average Internet speed now sits at 3.8 Mbps, with South Korea as the country with the highest average speed of 21.9 Mbps.

"We've reached a significant milestone in the improvement of average connection speeds," said David Belson, editor of the State of the Internet Report. "The fact that all of the top 10 countries/regions' average connection speeds are now at or exceeding the high broadband threshold -- and continued strong growth in countries like South Korea and Ireland -- is indicative of the progress that's being made in broadband penetration. It's reasonable to expect these promising trends will continue to be reflected in future reports."

That's all good news, and we should be screaming for joy, but nothing is never that simple, unfortunately.

Akamai also reports that hacking on the Web has risen substantially, and most of these actions have originated from China. DDoS (distributed denial of service) attacks have risen by 75 percent in the fourth quarter of 2013 when compared to the previous year. In addition, DDoS attacks were up 23 percent in the previous quarter.

In 2013 alone, Akamai customers reported a massive 1,153 DDoS attacks, which is a 50 percent increase from the smaller number of 768 attacks recorded in 2012. In the final quarter of 2013, 241 of the 1,153 attacks were directed at the commerce and enterprise industry. Less than half were aimed at websites based in America.

In the final quarter of 2013, China was the IP source for 43 percent of all DDoS attacks, the United States followed with 19 percent, while Canada sits close behind with 10 percent.

"Akamai maintains a distributed set of unadvertised agents deployed across the Internet to log connection attempts that the company classifies as attack traffic," according to a report from the company. "Based on the data collected by these agents, Akamai is able to identify the top countries from which attack traffic originates, as well as the top ports targeted by these attacks."

Source: Tech Times

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critical alert CA Partner’s Program

Providing better communications solutions to hospitals across the country — together!

For CAS, strong partnerships remain key to providing our software-based communications solutions to our customers. These solutions include:

ca dr and nurse
nurse call systemscritical messaging solutionsmobile health applications

We provide the communication, training and resources required to become a CA partner. In turn, our partners provide customers with the highest levels of local service & support. CA Partners may come from any number of business sectors, including:

  • Service Providers
  • System Integrators
  • Value Added Resellers and Distributors
  • Expert Contractors
If you would like to hear more about our CA Partners program, we’d love to hear from you.

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Selected portions of the BloostonLaw Telecom Update, and/or the BloostonLaw Private Users Update — newsletters from the Law Offices of Blooston, Mordkofsky, Dickens, Duffy & Prendergast, LLP are reproduced in this section with the firm's permission.

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BloostonLaw Telecom Update Vol. 17, No. 16 April 23, 2014


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Mobility Fund Phase II Developments

Given that Verizon has completed its 4G LTE roll-out, and AT&T will complete its 4G LTE roll-out by the end of 2014, the Further Rulemaking will re-evaluate Phase II of the Mobility Fund. In particular, the FCC will consider whether it should focus on the 2% of the U.S. population that will not have access to LTE, and, if so, how a re-focused Mobility Fund should work. The FCC will also consider whether and how the phase-down of competitive eligible telecommunications carrier ("CETC") identical support should be adjusted.

We reiterate that the Open Meeting discussions and New Release were relatively general, and that some of the expected decisions and proposals may have changed as a result of internal FCC discussions and negotiations during the Sunshine Period. BloostonLaw will be watching carefully for the release of the actual FCC document, and will update this report as soon as possible thereafter.

Parties Discuss Upcoming Report, Order, and FNPRM on USF/ICC Reform

In the days leading up to today's open meeting, during which the FCC will consider a report, order, and further notice of proposed rulemaking (FNPRM) in the USF/ICC reform proceeding, a number of parties met with the FCC to discuss various issues related thereto.

On April 11, AT&T met with Wireline Competition Bureau (WCB) staff to argue that the eligible telecommunications carrier (ETC) rules that applied in the legacy USF environment must be changed at the same time that Phase II of the Connect America Fund (CAF) is implemented, and that ETC designations and obligations must be limited only to areas eligible for support and to those providers who willingly accept and receive that support.

On April 14, representatives from Frontier, Windstream, Verizon, AT&T, CenturyLink, Hawaiian, FairPoint and USTelecom met with Chairman Wheeler's legal advisor and with Wireline Competition Bureau staff, where they discussed concerns about a possible increase in the broadband speed requirements for CAF Phase II, and provided suggestions on how to compensate for any such potential increase. That same day, representatives from ITTA and TDS met separately with legal advisors for Chairman Wheeler and Commissioner Rosenworcel to express similar concerns.

On April 15, NTCA met with Chairman Wheeler's legal advisor to encourage the FCC to implement updates to the existing high-cost rules for areas served by rural, rate-of-return-regulated local exchange carriers as soon as possible. Specifically, NTCA discussed how updates must ensure recovery for both prior investments and future investments; and discussed its previously-submitted proposal to update legacy universal service rules in response to consumer demands for broadband.

On April 16, CenturyLink met with Commissioner Rosenworcel's legal advisor to voice concerns about a potential increase in broadband speed requirements for CAF Phase II. Also on April 16, Charter Communications met with staff for Commissioners O'Rielly and Pai to oppose a proposal to make partially served census blocks eligible for CAF Phase II funding.

The report, order, and FNPRM will not be available in time for review before this edition of the BloostonLaw Telecom Update goes to press, but carriers should look for these issues to be addressed when it comes out.

FCC Adopts Proposal to Allocate 150 MHz of Spectrum to "Citizens Broadband Radio Service"

The Federal Communications Commission today set forth its proposal to provide more spectrum for general consumer use, carrier-grade small cell deployments, fixed wireless broadband services, and other innovative uses, through the creation of a new Citizens Broadband Radio Service. The Commission is proposing rules for the Citizens Broadband Radio Service in a Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (FNPRM) (FCC 14-49) that advances the Commission's efforts to meet the growing demand for spectrum by proposing to make 150 megahertz available in the 3.5 GHz Band.

The FNPRM proposes innovative spectrum sharing techniques to unlock the value of the spectrum between 3550 MHz and 3650 MHz, and seeks comment on extending the proposed service to the 3700 MHz band. Specifically, the FNPRM proposes a three-tiered access and sharing model comprised of federal and non-federal incumbents, priority access licensees, and general authorized access users. Together, the proposals seek to promote flexibility and innovation by leveraging advancements in technology to facilitate sharing between different users and uses, including incumbent government uses.

Federal and non-federal incumbents would be protected from harmful interference from Citizens Broadband Radio Service users. Targeted priority access licenses would be made available for a variety of uses, including mobile broadband. General authorized access use would be permitted in a reserved amount of spectrum and on an opportunistic basis for a variety of consumer or business-oriented purposes, including advanced home wireless networking.

Access and operation within the 3.5 GHz band would be managed by a spectrum access system, a dynamic database or databases that incorporates technical and functional requirements necessary to manage access and operations across the three tiers. In addition, the FNPRM seeks comment on technical, auction, and allocation rules.

We will provide additional information about the FCC's proposal once the text of the Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking is released.

Small Company Coalition Updates Summary of Alternative Universal Service Broadband Proposal

On April 21, 2014, the Small Company Coalition (SCC) filed an updated summary , in the form of a PowerPoint presentation, of its alternative universal broadband service proposal. The SCC said its proposal works similar to the previous HCLS-algorithm but includes broadband-centric cost study categories that would result in cost recoveries via CAF-related broadband funding.

The stated goal of the proposal is to "create an explicit, efficient and fair funding mechanism that incents the deployment of broadband networks and the transition to IP networks while providing carriers with revenues that are sufficient to enable recovery of capital and operating costs, including a reasonable return on investment, incurred to provide universal broadband services to rural consumers at rates and conditions comparable to those charged to consumers in urban areas." More specifically, the goals of the proposal are:

  1. No Retroactive Rulemaking. Ensure that Rate-of-Return (RoR) carriers have the opportunity to recover properly incurred capital and operating costs prior to a date certain.
  2. No Unfunded Mandates. Funding for new investment must be commensurate with any obligations imposed.
  3. Predictable and Sufficient Funding. Any new broadband recovery mechanism should clearly define how funding for new investment will be recovered and ensure that funding is sufficient to recover the cost to be supported under the plan.
  4. Understandable Mechanisms. Any proposed industry plan should be transparent, relatively simple in concept and mechanics, and quantifiable as to its impact on carriers.
  5. Comparable and Affordable Services for Rural Consumers. The plan should seek to ensure rural areas have access to broadband at terms, rates and conditions comparable to urban areas within the budget parameters of the Universal Service Fund.

The SCC proposal includes:

  1. A Broadband High Cost Loop Fund that provides a comprehensive solution for RoR carriers;
  2. A RoR carrier-specific funding model that develops a rate of return average cost per loop by state;
  3. A broadband high cost loop adjustment to identify and quantify the support attributed to broadband equipment categories, which is reduced from the Part 69 interstate special access rate element and added to the Broadband High Cost Loop Fund in a manner similar to the way line port costs are shifted in the MAG adjustment; and
  4. Support would only be available to 1) build-out to customers without adequate availability to broadband service from a competitor, and/or 2) maintain a broadband-centric network, thereby insuring efficient use of fund resources.

The updated summary also includes an outline of the mechanics of SCC's proposal, as well as a discussion of the proposed capping mechanism.

Wireless Associations Ask FCC to Halt Phase-Down of USF support for High-Cost Wireless Carriers

Because of substantial delays in implementing Mobility Fund Phase II, both the Competitive Carriers Association (CCA) and the Rural Wireless Association (RWA) have requested the FCC to clarify that it will not phase-down USF support for high-cost wireless carriers as of July 1, 2014.

In an April 14, 2014 letter to FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler, RWA asked that the FCC immediately halt its planned phase-down of USF support for high-cost wireless carriers, citing to the substantial likelihood that Phase II will not be "operational" or "implemented" by June 30, 2014. The Commission's rules currently state that the phase-down of legacy USF support will halt if the Mobility Fund Phase II has not been implemented by June 30, 2014. Language in the USF/ICC Transformation Order also states that the phase-down will be halted if Phase II is not "implemented" by June 30, 2014.

"Continuing the phase-down without an opportunity to access funds through a Mobility Fund II mechanism is inconsistent with the universal service principles of Section 254—including the directive that the Commission provide "specific, predictable and sufficient" support," wrote RWA.

Likewise, the CCA sent a letter to Chairman Wheeler on April 15, 2014, asking that he enforce the Commission's prior decision to pause the phase-down of legacy support for wireless providers at 60 percent on June 30, 2014, until the Mobility Fund II is operational.

"Continuing the phase-down without an opportunity to access funds through a Mobility Fund II mechanism is inconsistent with the universal service principles of Section 254—including the directive that the Commission provide "specific, predictable and sufficient" support," wrote CCA.

As part of the same filing, CCA also urged the FCC to eliminate a right-of-first-refusal ("RoFR") for price-cap carriers in the CAF Phase II, which it views as discriminatory. If the RoFR is not eliminated, CCA said the Commission should prohibit price-cap carriers who decline the RoFR from having a second chance at competing for the funding as wireless providers. CCA said as voice and broadband customers continue to migrate to wireless platforms, the continued evisceration of USF support for wireless providers will exacerbate the growing digital divide between urban and rural areas, putting rural consumers at risk of receiving lower-quality and less affordable services.

Law & Regulation

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Supreme Court Hears Landmark Case on Copyright Issue

The U.S. Supreme Court, on Tuesday, heard oral argument in ABC et al. v. Aereo , a case that could have far-reaching implications for the entertainment industry.

Aereo is a small start-up based in New York City, founded by its CEO, Chet Kanojia, in 2012. Its technology uses multiple tiny antennas that pick up over-the-air broadcast signals which are then fed to a digital video recorder (DVR). Each of its subscribers is temporarily assigned an antenna and a virtual DVR which then streams the program of the subscriber's choosing to a TV, smartphone, tablet or computer for viewing contemporaneously or at a later time. The technology is, in effect, cloud based in that the TV programming is stored online and then viewed by the subscriber over the Internet. Aereo's service is currently being provided in 13 urban markets for about $8 a month.

TV broadcasters claim that this constitutes infringement of their copyrighted program material, plain and simple. They rely on Congressional action in enacting the Copyright Act of 1976, bestowing on copyright holders an exclusive right over transmissions of their work to the public "by means of any device or process, whether the member of the public capable of receiving the performance or display receive it in the same place or in separate places and at the same time or at different times." This, claim the broadcasters, makes it clear that Congress meant to include services like those provided by Aereo, which deliver TV programming to the public, even though individual subscribers may receive those transmissions at different times and places.

Not so fast says Aereo, which claims that the subscriber is simply using his or her own cloud-based antenna to receive free broadcast programming and then recording that on a cloud-based DVR. Recording free TV broadcasts was given the green light in the famous Sony Betamax case in 1984 in which the Supreme Court upheld the use of video cassette recorders to record programming for viewing at a later time. So, the only remaining question, according to Aereo, is whether the transmission from the subscriber's own virtual DVR to a TV, smartphone, tablet or computer should be considered a "public performance" that copyright holders have the right to control or, as Aereo claims, a private performance since the final transmission occurs only if and when determined by the subscriber for strictly private viewing.

This is the question currently before the Supreme Court. At the oral argument on Tuesday, several of the justices appeared skeptical questioning whether Aereo had come up with an engineering achievement or merely a technical workaround to bypass the copyright laws. The justices questioned the parties at length about the definition of public and private performances in copyright law and how Aereo differs from cable, satellite and other video suppliers that pay broadcasters retransmission and other license fees.

The Court's decision in the case could have far-reaching implications. The broadcast industry will likely lose out on a lot of revenue if Aereo is allowed to avoid paying retransmission fees and more of the public start watching TV on Aereo instead of on cable. Likewise, other suppliers of cloud-based services are concerned about the effect a decision might have on their businesses.

The Court's decision in the case is expected in June.

Wireline Competition Bureau Announces Availability of CAF Phase II Cost Model

On April 17, the Wireline Competition Bureau issued a Public Notice announcing the availability of Version 4.1.1 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model. According to the Notice, CAM v4.1.1 incorporates "minor corrections" to the model's broadband coverage and a number of technical changes that "do not have a material effect on the funding levels previously released by the Bureau."

Specifically, CAM v4.1.1 corrects the broadband coverage for approximately 5400 census blocks to reflect the fact that these census blocks are not served by a fixed wireless provider. CAM v4.1.1 also contains updates to the TelcoMaster table to incorporate corrections to certain holding company names. Finally, CAM v4.1.1 modifies certain headers and field descriptions on two CAM reports.

CAM v4.1.1 is available at or . However, according to the Notice, parties must execute the relevant acknowledgement of confidentiality, licensing, and nondisclosure documents in order to access the model at either site.

Georgia Struggles with Broadband Implementation Legislation

The State of Georgia is struggling through a process that may play out in many states, namely, trying to figure out the best way to facilitate the rapid deployment of wireless broadband, including the need for more towers to accommodate the intensive use of spectrum caused by smartphones, tablets and other broadband devices. Members of the Georgia State legislature drafted the" Mobile Broadband Infrastructure Leads to Development (BILD) Act" (HB 176), which would streamline the approval process for broadband deployment, particularly where collocation on an existing antenna structure is involved. A shot clock would be imposed on zoning and other processing of new facility applications, and an even shorter deadline on processing of collocations. Limits would be placed on the amount of information that can be required of applicants. The bill justifies its proposed measures as necessary to spur economic through the deployment of broadband, and to create broadband infrastructure that will benefit the public safety community. However, the bill failed to come up for a vote in this session of the Georgia legislature.

Rep. Don Parsons (R-Marietta), the bill's primary author, vows to continue working for its passage. First, he must overcome the opposition of the Georgia Municipal Association (GMA), which is made up of local government entities, some of which fear the effort to smooth the way for broadband deployment will erode their authority over land use decisions. It is reported that overt opposition comes from only three of Georgia's 159 counties, but this opposition (bolstered by input from the GMA) has been enough to stall the bill so far. Interviews by AGL Bulletin magazine have shed some light on the battleground between wireless carriers and local governments:

"We will address the city and county governments [concerning the bill] right after the session is over and make sure they have the factual information," Parsons told AGL Bulletin magazine, noting that Georgia has many communities that need wireless infrastructure to support economic development.

"HB 176 … would seriously impair the ability of local governments to protect the public from the siting and expansion of towers in locations that are not ideal, or even appropriate, for towers," according to a GMA talking points paper. GMA also argues that the bill contains a false promise it will not adversely impact local control of the tower zoning. "By limiting what zoning boards and local governments can consider, HB 176 would override the standards used by communities to determine whether a particular use is appropriate on that property and compatible with surrounding uses," according to GMA. "While HB 176 says it would allow zoning to apply, it doesn't. HB 176 is special treatment, not equal treatment."

Parsons is skeptical of the motives of the municipalities, noting that they have a vested interest in drawing out lease negotiations city-owned property: "The longer they can draw out the negotiation process, the more leverage they have to drive up the rental fee for their property".

Opposition also came from the County of Fulton, which has sent a resolution to the Georgia legislature stating that the legislation would take away its decision-making capability.

"HB 176 would eliminate the zoning protections cities currently have to regulate the size of existing towers. For instance, a small cell tower could be dramatically increased in height and width without any zoning oversight," Fulton said. "HB 176 would prevent a city from imposing height limitations on a new tower. A city would not be permitted to request that the applicant build two lower towers rather than one higher tower." This objection seems to ignore language in the bill that applies the streamlined approval process only to situations where the broadband deployment would not increase the height of a previously approved tower, or the size of the "equipment compound."

The bill's sponsors have already made changes in the bill aimed at addressing municipalities' concerns. For example, they removed a passage that would have required them negotiate a price [to lease the land] based on fair-market value. The twists and turns of the Georgia bill could inform similar efforts in other states, as wireless carriers seek to keep up with competition and respond to consumer demand by deploying their broadband facilities as quickly as possible.


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Former Chairman Julius Genachowski Joins Syniverse Board of Directors

Telecompetitor is reporting that former FCC Chairman Julius Genachowski (2009-2013) has joined the Board of Directors of Syniverse, a company that provides a cloud-based platforms and services for mobile service providers, ISPs and app providers. Genachowski is currently a Managing Director in the Carlyle Group's U.S. Buyout team, where he focused on acquisitions and growth investments in global technology, media and telecom, including Internet and mobile.

Syniverse President and CEO Jeff Gordon said he looks forward to working with Genachowski and believes his extensive experience overseeing mobile and telecom initiatives will benefit Syniverse greatly. Genachowski, who has held senior leadership positions in the private sector for more than a decade, said he is honored to join the Syniverse board.

Netflix Emerges as Vocal Opponent of Comcast / Time Warner Cable Merger

After recently paying an undisclosed sum to internet service provider Comcast in order to "interconnect" and thereby better serve its streaming video customers, the Washington Post is reporting that Netflix has come out in opposition of the upcoming Comcast / Time Warner Cable merger.

In a recent letter to shareholders, Netflix CEO Reed Hastings and CFO David Wells wrote that the merger would create "a single company with too much power over the broadband Internet market. Combined, Comcast and Time Warner Cable could control as much as half of all broadband Internet subscriptions, with most of those homes having no alternative options for broadband service providers."

"Comcast is already dominant enough to be able to capture unprecedented fees from transit providers and services as Netflix," continued the letter. "The combined company would possess even more anti-competitive leverage to charge arbitrary interconnection tolls for access to their customers. For this reason, Netflix opposes this merger."

In a statement, Comcast spokeswoman Jennifer Khoury, a senior vice president, responded: "Netflix's opposition to our Time Warner Cable transaction is based on inaccurate claims and arguments. There has been no company that has had a stronger commitment to openness of the Internet than Comcast."

Calendar At-A-Glance

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Apr. 23 – Reply comments are due on Extension of Freeze of Separations Category Relationships and Cost Allocation Factors.
Apr. 25 – Comments are due on Grain Management, LLC Petition for Clarification.


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May 1 – FCC Form 499-Q, Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet is due.
May 9 – Reply comments are due on Grain Management, LLC Petition for Clarification.
May 29 – Comments are due on the short form Tariff Review Plans.
May 31 – FCC Form 395, Employment Report, is due.


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Jun. 16 – ILEC Tariff filings made on 15 days' notice are due.
Jun. 23 – Petitions to suspend or reject tariff filings made on 15 days' notice are due.
Jun. 24 – ILEC tariff filings made on 7 days' notice are due.
Jun. 26 – Replies to petitions to suspend or reject tariff filings made on 15 days' notice are due.
Jun. 26 – Petitions to suspend or reject tariff filings made on 7 days' notice are due.
Jun. 27 – Replies to petitions to suspend or reject tariff filings made on 7 days' notice are due.


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Jul. 1 – FCC Form 481 (Carrier Annual Reporting Data Collection Form) is due.
Jul. 1 – Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Winner Annual Report is due.
Jul. 31 – FCC Form 507 (Universal Service Quarterly Line Count Update) is due.
Jul. 31 – Carrier Identification Code (CIC) Report is due.

This newsletter is not intended to provide legal advice. Those interested in more information should contact the firm. For additional information, please contact Hal Mordkofsky at 202-828-5520 or .

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Lawmakers reject bill requiring cell phone kill switch

Melody Gutierrez
Updated 1:48 am, Friday, April 25, 2014
San Francisco Chronicle

Senator Mark Leno said powerful and deep-pocked wireless communications industry killed his bill requiring anti-theft technology on smartphones.
Photo: Lea Suzuki, The Chronicle

California state Sen. Mark Leno said a powerful and deep-pocketed wireless communications industry killed his bill requiring anti-theft technology on smartphones.

Despite support from law enforcement, including adamant backing from San Francisco District Attorney George Gascón, the bill requiring kill switches on mobile devices fell two short after nearly all Republicans and several Democrats voted against it, including Sens. Jim Beall, D-San Jose; Ricardo Lara, D-Bell Gardens; and Norma Torres, D-Pomona.

Leno said he brought the bill up for a vote Thursday believing he had the necessary 21 votes.

"When that kind of force comes up against a public safety issue, one would hope and believe there would be votes there to protect public safety and not the interests of the powerful special interests," Leno said. "We aren't giving up."

Leno asked for the bill to return in the coming weeks for a second vote in the Senate.

SB962 would require that smartphones have kill switches as a way to deter thieves. The anti-theft tool allows users to remotely erase their personal data and render phones inoperable if they are lost or stolen. If a phone is recovered, the owner can turn it on and restore data.

The wireless industry trade group CTIA has fought kill-switch technology on cell phones until this month, when the group announced it would offer the feature as an optional tool. The biggest smartphone makers and wireless carriers said they would begin offering an opt-in kill switch on devices made after July 2015.

CTIA remained opposed to Leno's bill, which would have required kill switches to be installed and turned on, with the owner having the ability to deactivate the tool if desired.

Leno said the opt-out method would increase the number of phones enabled with the technology, a pivotal factor in deterring thieves.

Many saw CTIA's move to voluntarily offer kill switches as a way to thwart a landslide of support for legislation requiring the technology. On a national level, both the House and Senate have bills mandating kill switches.

As the value of smartphones has increased, so has the violence used in crimes targeting the devices, which can command several hundred dollars each on the black market. More than 1.6 million Americans had smartphones, tablets or other devices stolen in 2012, according to Consumer Reports. Gascón said two-thirds of the robberies in San Francisco involve a cell phone or tablet, up from half the crimes in 2012.

Some companies already offer the technology on a voluntary opt-in basis, while others have characterized kill switches as technically unfeasible, prohibitively expensive or rife for abuse by hackers.

Leno said the real push back to kill switches is in the billions of dollars the wireless industry pulls in by selling insurance for smartphones that are lost or stolen. Consumers overwhelmingly said carriers should allow consumers to disable stolen phones, according a survey of 1,200 users by William Duckworth, a statistics professor at Creighton University.

"Today's decision by the State Senate is disheartening given the rampant rate of victimization," Gascón said in a statement. "With their no vote, 17 members of the Senate chose to protect billion dollar industry profits over the safety of the constituents they were elected to serve."

Melody Gutierrez is a San Francisco Chronicle staff writer. E-mail:


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Nostalgia—The First Transistors


The transistor was invented by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley at Bell Labs in December, 1947. Announced to the public in June, 1948, this new device had characteristics which could be exploited to overcome some fundamental limitations of vacuum tubes — transistors had very long life, were small, lightweight and mechanically rugged, and required no filament current. The commercial use of transistors increased dramatically in the 1950's, beginning with telephone switching equipment and military computers in 1952, hearing aids in 1953, and portable radios in 1954. In 1953, over 1,000,000 transistors were manufactured; in 1955, 3,500,000 transistors were manufactured, and by 1957, annual production was a staggering 29,000,000 units. The rapid rise of the transistor in the 1950's can be attributed to a few major companies, such as Raytheon, Western Electric, RCA, Philco, General Electric, Texas Instruments, and Fairchild. [ source ]

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The CK722 holds a unique place in the history of the transistor. Introduced by Raytheon in early 1953, the CK722 was the first low cost junction transistor available to the general public. It was an instant success. Countless "build it yourself" articles were published in the popular electronics press and electronics/hobbyist magazines describing how to use the CK722 to build all types of devices such as radios, oscillators, electronic voltmeters, photoelectric alarms and hearing aids. Eager to learn about the exciting new transistor technology, the public responded enthusiastically to the CK722 — hundreds of thousands of these transistors were bought by experimenters, radio hams, engineers and others interested in this technology over the next few years. In addition, there is a sentimental aspect to this device. Many of the talented and dedicated professionals and amateurs who have been responsible for the tremendous rise of the electronics industry over the past four decades can still remember the time when, as a young hobbyist, they were able to scrape together enough money (maybe through saving allowance or cutting the neighbor's grass) to buy that first CK722 — can you still recall the smell of solder and the absolute delight of hearing a local radio station coming through "loud and clear" on the newly constructed one transistor radio powered by, of course, a gleaming, bright blue CK722? [ source ]
[Brad Dye: YES I can!]

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Norm Krim, “The Father of the CK722”

This is a September 1953 photo of Mr. Norm Krim, then a vice-president at Raytheon for the Receiving Tube and Semiconductor division. He is shown holding a box of CK722 transistors which were destined to be shipped to Radio Shack Corp, representing the first distributor shipment of commercial transistors by any manufacturer.

Mr. Norman Krim has been associated with the Raytheon company for over 70 years, beginning as a consultant in 1933, when he was in his junior year at MIT. He began work on a permanent basis with Raytheon in 1935 as an electron tube manufacturing engineer, shortly after receiving his EE degree from MIT. Norm has held a variety of senior engineering and management positions at Raytheon, including Vice President of the Receiving Tubes and Semiconductors in the 1950s. He left Raytheon in the early 1960s to become the President and CEO of Radio Shack Corporation, returning to Raytheon later in the 1960s, where he has remained as a consultant. Norm was appointed Raytheon archivist and historian in 1990, and remains active in that position. [ source ]

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Norman Krim, Who Championed the Transistor, Dies at 98

Published: December 20, 2011

Don Bernstein/Raytheon Company
Norman Krim holding some early transistors. He first put transistors into hearing aids.

Norman Krim, an electronics visionary who played a pivotal role in the industry's transition from the bulky electron vacuum tube, which once lined the innards of radios and televisions, to the tiny, far more powerful transistor, died on Dec. 14 in a retirement home in Newton, Mass. He was 98.

The cause was congestive heart failure, his son Robert said.

Mr. Krim, who made several breakthroughs in a long career with the Raytheon Company and who had an early hand in the growth of the RadioShack chain, did not invent the transistor. (Three scientists did, in 1947, at Bell Laboratories.)

But he saw the device's potential and persuaded his company to begin manufacturing it on a mass scale, particularly for use in miniaturized hearing aids that he had designed. Like the old tube, a transistor amplifies audio signals.

As Time magazine wrote in 1953: "This little device, a single speck of germanium, is smaller than a paper clip and works perfectly at one-tenth the power needed by the smallest vacuum tube. Today, much of Raytheon's transistor output goes to America's hearing aid industry." (Germanium, a relatively rare metal, was the predecessor to silicon in transistors.)

That was just the start. "Now there are over 50 million transistors on a single computer chip, and billions of transistors are manufactured every day," Jack Ward, curator of the online Transistor Museum , said in an interview. "Norm was the first to recognize the potential and led Raytheon to be the first major transistor manufacturer."


As of 2012, the highest transistor count in a commercially available CPU is over 2.5 billion transistors, in Intel's 10-core Xeon Westmere-EX.

Nvidia currently holds the "world-record" for a GPU containing 7.08 billion transistors.

[ source ]

Thousands of hearing-disabled people benefited from Mr. Krim's initial use of the transistor in compact hearing aids. But not every transistor Raytheon made was suitable for them, he found.

"When transistors were first being manufactured by Raytheon on a commercial scale, there was a batch called CK722s that were too noisy for use in hearing aids," said Harry Goldstein, an editor at IEEE Spectrum, the magazine of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

So Mr. Krim contacted editors at magazines like Popular Science and Radio Electronics and began marketing the CK722s to hobbyists.

"The result was that a whole generation of aspiring engineers — kids, really, working in their garages and basements — got to make all kinds of electronic projects," Mr. Goldstein said, among them transistor radios, guitar amplifiers, code oscillators, Geiger counters and metal detectors. "A lot of them went on to become engineers."

Mr. Ward called Mr. Krim "the father of the CK722."

Before the transistor, Mr. Krim had already made significant contributions to the industry. In 1938 he led a Raytheon team that developed miniaturized vacuum tubes for use in battery-powered radios. He also realized that the small tubes could replace cumbersome packs that hearing-aid users had to strap onto themselves in those days.

"Zenith, Beltone, Sonotone are some of the American companies that used his improved, more affordable hearing-aid technology," said Chet Michalak, who is writing a biography of Mr. Krim. "His devices were about the size of today's hand-held phones." They were also a precursor to the transistor hearing aid his team later developed.

Norman Bernard Krim was born in Manhattan on June 3, 1913, one of four children of Abraham and Ida Krim. His father owned several luncheonettes. By the age of 12, he was tinkering with the refrigerator motor in his home.

After graduating from George Washington High School at 16, he was accepted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where in his junior year he built an "electrical brain" that, according to newspaper articles at the time, seemed to be able to make childlike choices, deciding whether it preferred beets or spinach, for example.

"He considered it a carnival act," Mr. Michalak said.

Raytheon hired Mr. Krim after his graduation in 1934, at 50 cents an hour. By the time he left the company in 1961, he was vice president of the semiconductor divisions.

Mr. Krim's wife of 52 years, the former Beatrice Barron, died in 1994. Beside his son Robert, he is survived by another son, Arthur, and four grandchildren. Another son, Donald, a leading film distributor, died in May.

After leaving Raytheon, Mr. Krim bought two electronics stores in Boston called RadioShack. By the time he sold the business to the Tandy Corporation two years later, it had seven stores; today the chain has about 7,300.

Mr. Krim was a marketing consultant to Raytheon and several other companies until 1997. [ source ]

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By 1952, Raytheon was making thousands of the its new alloy junction transistor every week. These were tested for a variety of parameters, such as power gain and noise factor. The primary market for these transistors was for hearing aids, which consumed an average of 70,000 Raytheon transistors a month in 1954. Only about 1/2 of the early Raytheon transistors which were tested to be functional performed well enough to be used in hearing aids; this market required relatively high gain and low noise factors in order for the resultant hearing aids to meet acceptable quality levels. This meant that there were literally thousands of functional Raytheon junction transistors available for the general use (not hearing aids). These transistors were further tested and sorted into different performance levels, with the resultant transistors being assigned model numbers depending on performance. Models CK718, CK721 and CK722 were the initial unit types identified, with the CK718 meeting strict hearing aid requirements, the CK721 providing moderate gain and noise factor - the CK722 was the model number assigned to all the remaining functional units which met the minimum acceptable gain requirements (minimum power gain of 30db and noise factor of 22dB).

The CK722 came in three separate colors — black, blue and silver. The original CK722 was manufactured in a black plastic case, with white lettering. The date code for this black unit was a three digit number printed on the opposite side of the case from the CK722 id. The first digit represents the year, starting with 1952, and the last two digits represent the week of the year — so, 3-06 would be 1953 week 6. The earliest date code I have seen on a black CK722 is 245, which would be 1952, week 45. Sometime in 1955, the blue metal case style was introduced. Here again white lettering is used for the CK722 id and for the three digit date code. For the blue units the date code is printed on the same side of the case as the id. The earliest date code for a blue unit I've seen is 527, which would mean 1955 week 27. The blue metal units continued until sometime in the late 1950's; the latest date code I have seen for a blue unit is 630, which would be 1956 week 30. The silver metal style was the last type of CK722 to be manufactured. The latest date code I have seen for a silver unit (these were four digit date codes for the most part, with the exception of a few 1960 units) is 6352, which would represent 1963 week 52. The date code and the CK722 are printed in black on the same side of the case. Apparently 1964 was the last year of manufacture for the Raytheon CK722, since that was the year when the Lewiston Maine Raytheon transistor manufacturing plant was closed down — this was the last germanium transistor manufacturing plant operated by Raytheon. [ source ]

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Here is an early interesting CK722 application. It is a hearing aid sized “Pocket Pager” made by the Transvox Corporation. The unit has one CK722 and two smaller hearing aid type Raytheon transistors, types 782 and 783, dated 1957. The CK722 has an odd 3 digit date code, A04. Note the interesting funnel shaped plastic earphone, which apparently allowed the user to clip the earphone to a collar, and still not miss any important messages. The unit has an induction coil to pick up signals, and I suspect it was used in a “wired” building, like a hotel or convention hall, for short range communication. [ source ]
  • The First CK722s Cost 12.00.
  • The CK722 Price Was $7.60 in February 1953.
  • The CK722 Was The First $1.00 Transistor (1956).
  • By the Early 1960s, Surplus CK722 Type Transistors Cost 10 for $1.00.
[ source ]

Brad Dye's Comment:

I believe I built the first transistor radio in this little country town where I live (Fairfield, Illinois) when I was 12 years old and in the seventh grade. It used the famous CK722 —it was in a kit that I ordered from one of the Popular or Radio, Electronics magazines.

That would have been about 1954 and the CK722 probably cost about $3.00 back then.

I found an old book and hollowed it out the insides using my scroll saw. I hid the radio inside of the book and took it to school with me. At school, I went around connecting an "alligator" clip, connected to the antenna lead, onto various metal objects, and occasionally I was able hear the local AM radio station on a little ear plug. The station was WFIW — located a couple of miles east of town. It is still on the air.

Today (April 25, 2014) is my 72 nd birthday, and I still haven't gotten over the thrill of that early radio. My love of radio communications and my work in electronics took me all around the world, several times, ultimately to over fifty countries. I can't believe it has been 60 years since I started building radios.

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Prism Paging

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  • VoIP telephone access — eliminate interconnect expense
  • Call from anywhere — Prism SIP Gateway allows calls from PSTN and PBX
  • All the Features for Paging, Voice-mail, Text-to-Pager, Wireless and DECT phones
  • Prism Inet, the new IP interface for TAP, TNPP, SNPP, SMTP — Industry standard message input
  • Direct Connect to NurseCall, Assisted Living, Aged Care, Remote Monitoring, Access Control Systems

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WiPath Communications

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Intelligent Solutions for Paging & Wireless Data

WiPath manufactures a wide range of highly unique and innovative hardware and software solutions in paging and mobile data for:

  • Emergency Mass Alert & Messaging
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  • Load Shedding and Electrical Services Control

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PDT3000 Paging Data Terminal

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  • Built-in POCSAG encoder
  • Huge capcode capacity
  • Parallel, 2 serial ports, 4 relays
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Paging Controlled Moving Message LED Displays

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  • Variety of sizes
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PDR3000/PSR3000 Paging Data Receivers

paging data receiver

  • Highly programmable, off-air decoders
  • Message Logging & remote control
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  • Network monitoring and alarm reporting

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Specialized Paging Solutions

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  • Emergency Mass Alerting
  • Remote telemetry switching & control
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  • PC interfacing and message management
  • Paging software and customized solutions
  • Message interception, filtering, redirection, printing & logging Cross band repeating, paging coverage infill, store and forward
  • Alarm interfaces, satellite linking, IP transmitters, on-site systems

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Mobile Data Terminals & Two Way Wireless  Solutions

mobile data terminal

radio interface

  • Fleet tracking, messaging, job processing, and field service management
  • Automatic vehicle location (AVL), GPS
  • CDMA, GPRS, ReFLEX, conventional, and trunked radio interfaces

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WiPath Communications LLC
4845 Dumbbarton Court
Cumming, GA 30040
4845 Dumbbarton Court
Cumming, GA 30040
Web site: left arrow CLICK
E-mail: left arrow CLICK
WiPath Communications

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Hark Technologies

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Wireless Communication Solutions

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USB Paging Encoder

paging encoder

  • Single channel up to eight zones
  • Connects to Linux computer via USB
  • Programmable timeouts and batch sizes
  • Supports 2-tone, 5/6-tone, POCSAG 512/1200/2400, GOLAY
  • Supports Tone Only, Voice, Numeric, and Alphanumeric
  • PURC or direct connect
  • Pictured version mounts in 5.25" drive bay
  • Other mounting options available
  • Available as a daughter board for our embedded Internet Paging Terminal (IPT)

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Paging Data Receiver (PDR)


  • Frequency agile—only one receiver to stock
  • USB or RS-232 interface
  • Two contact closures
  • End-user programmable w/o requiring special hardware
  • 16 capcodes
  • Eight contact closure version also available
  • Product customization available

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Other products

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Please see our web site for other products including Internet Messaging Gateways, Unified Messaging Servers, test equipment, and Paging Terminals.

Hark Technologies
717 Old Trolley Rd Ste 6 #163
Summerville, SC 29485
Tel: 843-821-6888
Fax: 843-821-6894
E-mail: left arrow CLICK
Web: left arrow CLICK

hark David George and Bill Noyes
of Hark Technologies.

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Hark Technologies

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Click on the logo above for more info.

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From:Jay Thompson
Subject:  The Poneman Institute's Study
Date:April 19, 2014
To:Brad Dye

This is from the Poneman Institute's study.

[ The Wireless Messaging News, Friday May 10, 2013 ]

“According to the study, clinicians waste an average of more than 45 minutes each day due to the use of outdated communications technologies. The primary reason is the inefficiency of pagers.”

They conveniently leave out the type of paging system being used. They also assume each clinician wastes the same amount of time in every facility. The obvious solution is to send them all to lunch during the 46.2 minutes they are doing absolutely nothing.

Foxit reader does not list olfactory generating properties among its attributes, but I sure smelled bull dung the minute I read this “study.”

P.S. I wonder how the institute would rate traffic lights? 50% of a driver's time is spent sitting still while cars are moving in other directions.

Jay Thompson
Thompson Communications

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The Wireless Messaging News

Best regards,
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Newsletter Editor

Brad Dye
P.O. Box 266
Fairfield, IL 62837 USA

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Skype: braddye
Twitter: @BradDye1
Telephone: 618-599-7869
Wireless: Consulting page
Paging: Home Page
Marketing & Engineering Papers
K9IQY: Ham Radio Page

Back To Paging
Still The Most Reliable Wireless Protocol For Emergencies!

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The Autumn of Life*

Cancion de Otoño en Primavera

“Juventud, divino tesoro,
¡ya te vas para no volver!
Cuando quiero llorar, no lloro...
y a veces lloro sin querer...”

—por Rubén Darío

First Stanza English Translation: [source]

Song of Autumn in the Springtime

“Youth, treasure only gods may keep,
Fleeting from me forever now!
I cannot, when I wish to, weep,
And often cry I know not how…”

Félix Rubén García Sarmiento (January 18, 1867 – February 6, 1916), known as Rubén Darío, was a Nicaraguan poet who initiated the Spanish-American literary movement known as modernismo (modernism) that flourished at the end of the 19th century. Darío has had a great and lasting influence on 20th-century Spanish literature and journalism. He has been praised as the “Prince of Castilian Letters” and undisputed father of the modernismo literary movement. [ source ]

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Sunset in Wayne County, Illinois

* “The Autumn of Life” refers to the last portion of one's life. It is a metaphor which likens one's life to the season when the time for planting, growing, and flowering is over, when the temperatures begin to drop, and the days become shorter. The leaves on the trees drop, and the natural world edges toward dormancy. It is the time when one's death is closer than one's birth. [ source ]

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